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Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Patna 
Sweta and Hussaini 
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Effect of shearing rate on the behavior of geogrid-reinforced railroad ballast under direct shear conditions. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 
Geotextiles and Geomembranes 
Railroad ballast, geogrid-reinforced 
A series of large-scale direct shear tests were conducted to investigate the behavior of unreinforced and geogrid-reinforced ballast at different rates of shearing. Fresh granite ballast with an average particle size ( D 50 ) of 42 mm and five geogrids having different aperture shapes and sizes was used in this study. Tests were performed at different normal stresses ( σ n ) ranging from 35 kPa to 140 kPa and at different rates of shearing ( S r ) ranging from 2.5 to 10.0 mm/min. The laboratory test results revealed that the shear strength of ballast was significantly influenced by the rate of shearing. The internal friction angle of ballast ( φ ) was found to decrease from 66.5° to 58° when the shearing rate ( S r ) was increased from 2.5 to 10.0 mm/min. It is further observed that the interface shear strength has improved significantly when the ballast was reinforced with geogrids. The interface efficiency factor ( α ), defined as the ratio of the shear strength of the interface to the internal shear strength of ballast, varies from 0.83 to 1.06. The sieve analysis of samples after the testing reveals that a significant amount of particle breakage occurs during shearing. The value of breakage, evaluated in terms of Marsal's breakage index ( B g ), increases from 5.12 to 13.24% with an increase in shearing rates from 2.5 to 10.0 mm/min. Moreover, the influence of aperture shape and size of geogrid on the behavior of ballast-geogrid interfaces was also examined in this study. 
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Venkata Dantham on 2020-08-03 
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