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Central University of Tamil Nadu 
Rita Zomuanpuii, Christopher L Hmar, Khawlhring Lallawmzuala, Lal Hlimpuia , Praveen Balabaskaran Nina, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar  
Corresponding Authors:
Rita Zomuanpuii 
DOI #:
Epidemiology of malaria and chloroquine resistance in Mizoram, northeastern India, a malaria-endemic region bordering Myanmar 
Malaria Journal 
Not applicable 
Chloroquine resistance; Mizoram; Plasmodium falciparum; pfcrt; pfmdr1 
ackground: Mizoram, a northeastern state in India, shares international borders with Myanmar and Bangladesh and is considered to be one of the key routes through which drug-resistant parasites of Southeast Asia enter mainland India. Despite its strategic location and importance, malaria epidemiology and molecular status of chloroquine resistance had not been well documented, and since chloroquine (CQ), as the first-line treatment in Plasmodium falciparum infection was discontinued since 2008, it was expected that CQ-sensitive haplotype would be more abundant. Methods: Malaria epidemiology data for the period 2010 to 2018 was collected from the office of State Vector Disease Control Programme. Plasmodium falciparum-positive blood samples were collected from government district hospitals, community health centres, primary health centres, sub-centres, and diagnostic centres from six malaria-prone districts. The samples were processed and analysed using genes-P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) via sequencing of PCR amplicon from 2015 to 2017. Results: Malaria occurred throughout the year and P. falciparum accounted for > 89% of total malaria cases. During 2010-2018, the highest number of malaria incidence was recorded in Lawngtlai (36% of total malaria cases; average API2010-2018 of 34.8) while Champhai remained consistently low (0.4%; average API2010-2018 of 0.04). Males of ≥ 15 years old contributed maximum (35.7%) among gender and age malarial distribution recorded during 2014-2018. Death due to malaria gradually decreased over the years. A higher abundance of mutated pfcrt (58.5% of the total sample analysed) and a lower prevalence of mutated pfmdr1 (48.7%) were observed. All mutations identified for pfcrt belong to the Southeast Asian CVIET haplotype. Only a single point mutation was observed at 86 (N → Y) position in pfmdr1 (48.7%). The key N86Y mutation in pfmdr1 that had been shown to modulate CQR was found in 67.1% of the samples positive for the CVIET haplotype. Conclusions: This is the first report that details malaria epidemiology and also the molecular status of CQ-resistance in P. falciparum population of the region. The efforts of the State Vector Borne Disease Control Programme have proved to be quite effective in controlling the malaria burden in the state. Despite the discontinuation of CQ for a decade, local P. falciparum is observed with decreased CQ-sensitive haplotype. It is believed that the present findings will form a basis for further studies on genetic diversity in P. falciparum, which could confer better understanding of the complexity of the disease in Southeast Asia. 
Entered by:
Praveen Balabaskaran Nina on 2020-09-03 
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